Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Associate Professor, Department of the Philosophy and Social Sciences of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
MORAL CHALLENGES AND METAPHYSICAL RESPONSES
Background. Primordial moral challenges of determinism, absurdity and mortality face people and threaten their unique personal life. These challanges require appropriate philosophical reflection. Response to these challenges cannot be adequate and exhaustive, and existential needs of the individual cannot be fully satisfied without recourse to metaphysical philosophical and religious traditions.
Analysis of recent research and publications showed that despite the existence of a number of individual scientific achievements, how metaphysical philosophy can answer moral challenges of personality remains unresolved.
The aim of the article is to explore the eternal moral challenges that characterize the human situation in general (chalenges of determinism, absurdity and mortality of human being); analyze how people philosophically interpret these challenges, and what they can set against them.
Materials and methods. The study used historical and philosophical, comparative, hermeneutic methods and method of "transcendental reflection".
Results. It has been shown that a philosophical concept of freedom as autodeterminism is the answer to the moral challenge of determinism. It implies metaphysical assumptions of super-phenomenal I, that is a transcendental subject, which is not limited to conventional empirical subjects. Modern antymetaphisic philosophy dismantle the idea of transcendental subject and dissolves selfdependant I in various economic, political, linguistic and out of conscious structures, which automatically leads to the loss of freedom. An alternative to this position is an appeal to a universal transcendental experience of freedom as openness to existance. This experience will certainly lead to the understanding of subject’s own limbs facing the infinite mystery and the divine absolute. God is the absolute horizon of any openness and is a guarantor of world sense. Person acquires its own subjectivity in the light of the experience of the absolute. Problem of personality is connected with the idea of out-of temporariness and immortality of I, it is a response to the challenge of mortality.
Conclusion. Dependence of moral nihilism on metaphysical nihilism has been formulated for the first time. It has been shown that only metaphysically oriented philosophical and theological tradition answers the questions about the reality of freedom, world sense and spiritual immortality of a personality.
Keywords: challenge and response, determinism, absurdity, mortality, transcendental experience, freedom of the human subject, world sense, immortality, super-phenomenal I.