Doctor of Economics, Head of Finance Department,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor at the Finance and Credit Department,
Khrarkiv Institute of Finance of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
EVOLUTION OF THE FINANCIAL MECHANISM OF PENSION PROTECTION
Background. In order to determine the economic substance of the operation of the pension system in terms of institutional reforms and directions of further development of relations of pension disclosure is appropriate characteristics of the financial mechanism of formation of the pension system. Improving the quality of public pension protection should be accompanied by effective changes in the financial policy of the country, improving the mechanisms of state control of social and economic development of society. The question of adequate pension provision as a significant social component needs to be addressed together with the use of financial instruments, based on macroeconomic and demographic trends. Currently, it is necessary to deepen the theoretical foundations of financial security pension system with relevant historical experience, which will provide an opportunity to strengthen the impact of financial regulation on social development in the country.
The aim of the article is to outline the formation features of the financial mechanism of the pension system provision of population.
Materials and methods. The scientific articles used a combination of methods and approaches allowing to realize the conceptual unity of study. Dialectical, historical and structural methods have been used to disclose the prerequisites of the formation of financial provision of retirement security of citizens; methods of analysis, synthesis, factor - to determine the directions of funding mechanisms for pension benefits.
Results. The process of becoming of a financial mechanism of the pension system of population covers a long historical period. Since ancient times there was a need to support disabled members of society that was in a form of charity and was based on religion. The first elements of such support were during slave formation.
On Ukrainian territory pensions originated in a feudal society in XVII–XVIII century, when Ukraine was part of the Russian and Austrian empires. It’s worth noting that officials and military were the first among all categories of the population who used different forms of social support, including pensions from the state. Pension prototypes combined cash and land plots, living in old people's home, almshouses and others. Gradually laying the foundations of the state pension system, changing views of the inner meaning, the essence of a pension, with charity, care, charity becomes a regular, systematic monetary payment. Regulatory framework for pension regulation of relations in society was created and improved.
It should be noted that the financing of the pension system to the mid-nineteenth century took place at the expense of the State Treasury, pension system was state-treasury and considered inherently bureaucratic. Pensions were provided to exclusively privileged strata of civilian, military, court officials and senior clergy and members of their families, depending on the timing and size of service salaries. But then treasury savings insurance factor was introduced in the state pension system that changed the system of central distributive-funded.
Conclusion. The emergence and transformation of the pension system of population is associated with changes in social relations. The generic form of protection of the elderly and charity, which functioned for centuries, gradually replaced state support. The prerequisites for the creation of centralized retirement protection mechanisms population were first of all industrialization, migration and demographic changes. Methods, forms, methods of funding for the pension protection, accompanied by the establishment of a financial mechanism of the pension system were transformed. The pension system, which originated in the social basis, that is, the need to support the disabled, needy segments of the population with social development gradually became an economic factor, which includes the investment component of economic growth and affects the performance of the productive forces in the country.
Keywords: pensions, government spending, pension protection of citizens, financial mechanism, pension payments, financial regulation, pension fund insurance type.
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