Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Professor at the Management Department,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Kyoto str., 19, Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
TIME RESTRICTIONS IN THE DOMESTIC TRADEBackground. Complete and high-quality execution of their socio-economic functions in any country of the world by objects of domestic trade is difficult to ensure without the use of effective mechanisms for regulating trade activity. Approaches to state regulation of domestic trade vary from country to country, but are based on general and special laws, as a rule. The need to solve the problem of ensuring the economic growth of domestic trade will raise the issue of finding the most effective practices for regulating the activities of trade objects, including those related to the schedule of their work.
The analysis of recent researches and publications showed that despite the existence of individual scientific achievements, until now, all the negative consequences of limiting hours of trade from the standpoint of different subjects of market relations were not clearly defined. Fragmentarily and only in some studies the effects of deregulation of the mode of operation of domestic trade objects were considered. The problem of breaking rules of public order in the late hours of their work and so on by the objects of trade remains unsolved.
The aim of the article is to develop recommendations, the implementation of which will contribute to improving the policy of regulating the work of domestic trade objects (primarily in Ukraine).
Materials and methods. In the course of the research, scientific developments of well-known scientists, statistical data of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, data from Spark Legal Network, the results of their own marketing research, media information, regulatory and legislative acts were used. The methods of systematization, comparative analysis, synthesis, questioning are applied.
Results. It is established that the tendency to legislative reforms in the issues of regulation of operational activity of enterprises and objects of domestic trade has recently been actual for many countries of the world. In place of the policy of strict regulation of the trade regime in Italy, Iceland, Australia the policy of its full deregulation came, as evidenced in particular by the study of the dynamics of the indicator of rigidity of regulation of operating restrictions on the time of work of retail trade objects around the world throughout 1998–2018. In Germany and Denmark, over the years, regulatory easing has taken place, and in Poland it is insignificant, but the tightening of regulatory rigidity has taken place. It was emphasized that in the period of 2013–2018, reforms were carried out in a number of countries aimed at liberalizing or introducing more flexible restrictions on the operation of trade objects.
Based on the results of the analysis of international practices in the regulation of the domestic trade regime, as well as the data of surveys of visitors (service users) and workers of trade organizations, we have been inentified the following negative consequences of the introduction of temporary restrictions from the standpoint of different subjects of market relations: from the standpoint of consumers were determined: reducing the time to make purchases, which limits the possibilities in the process of choosing a product, comparing similar goods and prices for them and, as a result, leads to false decisions and / or increased costs of purchase; from the position of sellers: loss of revenue compared to those stores that are allowed to work (for example, on Sunday) and, consequently, decrease in efficiency; loss of competitive advantages associated with the possibilities of temporary differentiation of service provision; from the position of all employees of trade organizations: loss of payment for weekends and holidays, which is usually higher than for work on weekdays; from the standpoint of potential employees of trade organizations: limiting the hours of work of one employee compared to others who, because of subjective or objective reasons, prefer working at certain hours and / or days of the week (for example, students), which creates additional prerequisites for raising the level of unemployment among youth, gender discrimination, etc.; from the position of state and local authorities: the probability of a reduction in revenues to the state / local budget from domestic trade. The conclusion is based on the fact that not only introduction, but also the lacks of regulation of working conditions can lead to negative consequences.
The effects (social, including employment, price, concentration, sales volumes) that arise as a result of the deregulation of the time of work of domestic trade objects are determined and systematized and sometimes lead to multivectoral consequences (for example, when in one case deregulation helps to reduce prices, and in the other – causes them to increase).
Recommendations are worked out and the expediency of introduction of temporary restrictions in the internal trade of Ukraine is substantiated, which, in particular, will help protect the population from noise in the late hour of the day.
Conclusion. Unlike existing publications, for the first time, all the negative consequences of limiting hours of trade from the positions of various entities of market relations were clearly identified, as well as the systematization of effects from the deregulation of the regime of the objects of domestic trade was conducted. Recommendations, implementation of which will contribute to improving the policy of regulating the operation of domestic trade objects are provided, aimed at ensuring strict compliance with such key targets as: safeguarding against so-called time-based competition, which in particular may negatively affect the activities of trade microenterprises; ensuring development taking into account the need to comply with social standards and guarantees for all categories of stakeholders.
The results, presented in the article, can be further used to improve the practice of regulating operational activities in the field of domestic trade of Ukraine, as well as in studies devoted to the problems of developing a strategy for the development of a retail network in the field.
Keywords: domestic trade, operational restrictions, trade outlets, regulation models, regime of operation, retail trade, deregulation, market relations entities, effects, state policy.
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