Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Professor at the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
PRACTICAL SLAVOPHILISM OF IVAN SERHIIOVYCH AKSAKOV
Background. In the history of the Russian Empire in the early 40's of the nineteenth century. Slavophilism emerged and evolved as a distinct literary, historical and philosophical, religious flow of social thought. Contrary to Westerners ideology, Slavophiles tried to dampen the West's influence on Russia's historical development, propagating national-patriotic ideas. Among the early Slavophiles I. Aksakov was their practical guide in the public consciousness of compatriots. His journalistic activities are the subject of this study.
Analysis of recent studies and publications revealed that Slavophile subject was revived in recent times, while approaches to its study were differentiated: in Russian discourse, Slavophilism appears to be modernized, in Ukrainian it is the latent politicization of the Slavophil doctrine of the Orthodox unity of the Slavs.
The aim of the article is to analyze the Orthodox-religious views of I. Aksakov, defining the role of Orthodoxy in the life of Russian society as an important factor in the spiritual unity of the Slavic peoples.
Materials and methods. The source of the research is the Aksakov’s publications in periodicals, founded and edited by him, correspondence, as well as historiographic works of Russian and Ukrainian scholars; methodological basis is basic philosophical principles and methods of scientific research: analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, principle of historicism, dialectical logics and systematicity.
Results. Slavophilism as a powerful current of public opinion in 40–70-ies of the nineteenth century in Russia is studied by historians, philosophers, literary scholars, and religious scholars. Its religious and philosophical aspect of the post-reform period was presented in practical terms by Ivan Serhiiovych Aksakov. In his periodicals he focused on the determination of the place and role of the Orthodox Church in the life of Russians and the unifying mission of Orthodoxy in the Slavic World. The quintessence of these ideas: Slavophilism was a "prominent historical moment in the intellectual development of Russian society", which was not denied by most Western writers. Slavophiles recognized Orthodoxy as the main principle of Russian nationality, under the influence of which it was historically formed, and in which (in the Orthodox doctrine), according to the Slavophiles, there were other educational principles, the beginnings of higher civilization, than those which lived and which were almost eliminated in Western Europe. "The exaggeration of Russian nationality, role of Orthodoxy, in the end, the rejection of I. Aksakov from moderate Slavophilism to Pan-Slavism meant in the mid-70's of the nineteenth century. the end of classical Slavophilism.
Conclusion. The process of the origin and evolution of Slavophilism in (1840– 1870-ies) is historically conditioned. Although its representatives have not worked out a holistic concept, they still contributed to the intellectual movement in search of Russia's own foundations of civilization development, and not borrowed from Europe. The well-known popularizer of the Slavophile doctrine was I. Aksakov. His philosophic-religious intentions were based on Orthodoxy, which had a decisive role in the spiritual and moral life of Russian society, the formation of national consciousness and the unification of Slavic peoples on the basis of religious and cultural affinity. The internal and external circumstances of the 60's and 70's of the nineteenth century led to the transformation of his moderate Slavophilian views towards Pan-Slavism.
Keywords:Slavophilism, Slavs, Russian people, nationality, Pan-Slavism, publicistic writing, Church, Orthodoxy, morals, self-consciousness, freedom of conscience.
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